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Physics of plasma arc and laser processes (в название страницы)

Research areas:

I. Development of arc-plasma torches and their technological application

Large number of investigations, directly or indirectly associated with the calculation and design of low-temperature plasma generators (electric arc plasma torches) and plasma-processing reactors were done in a Laboratory. Electric arc gas heaters are systems in which electric energy is converted into thermal energy by means of the generation of Joule heat in the discharge. Heating of the gas in these systems takes place mainly as a result of heat conductivity and convective heat exchange between the arc and the gas flow.

The interest in the investigations and application of the electric arc is caused by:
– high concentration of energy in the small volume of plasma;
– high rate of the chemical reactions, so that it is possible to produce high-productivity apparatus-reactors;
– the possibility of stationary heating of the gas to the mean mass temperature of the order of 15000 K at a pressure of up to 20 MPa;
– high efficiency of the transformation of electrical energy into thermal energy with a relatively simple apparatus;
– reliability and stability of operation of equipment;
– the possibility of heating almost any gases: reduction, oxidation, inert gases and mixtures;
– simple automation of controlling the operating regime of the electrical arc;
– small size and small metal requirement of plasma technology.

The main results in plasmatorch design are published in the book: "Thermal Plasma Torches" (pdf).

The main research activities are:

- development of jet/non transferred type of plasmatorches (pdf);

- development of melting/transferred type of plasmatorches (pdf);

- plasma-powder cladding and spraying of various functional and ceramic coatings (pdf).

II. Simulation of laser material processing technologies

One of the most important group of modern engineering technology is the laser processing of materials. It includes laser cutting, welding, surface modification, cladding, three-dimensional prototyping technologies. Unique manufacturing and economical characteristics of laser technologies, as well as the creation of new types of more powerful lasers ensure their continued rapid development. Potential technological lasers multikilowatt range currently not fully implemented. Any laser processing technology consists of several complex multi-disciplinary processes. Usually those processes are: the interaction of radiation with material, fluid dynamics of the plasma, gas and melt in the zone of intense radiation exposure, heat and mass transfer in multiphase systems, the chemical and metallurgical transformations and many other processes in multiple combinations. Conducting experiments and their analysis requires the involvement of the full apparatus of classical fundamental research. Blind experimental variation of huge number of process parameters often does not lead to a positive result. High-quality simulation of physical processes and their complexes in the adjoint formulation intensifies the development of new laser technologies and allows realizing the full potential of laser technology already implemented in industry in a short time.

The stuff of the laboratory has unique experience in simulation of following technologies:

- oxygen laser cutting (pdf);

- inert laser cutting (pdf);

- laser additive technologies (pdf);

- laser welding.