3rd International Workshop
"Thermal Plasma Torches and Technologies" (TPTT'97)
(25-29 August 1997, Novosibirsk, Akademgorodok, Russia)

(dedicated to 80th anniversary of Academician of Russian Ac. Sci.
Mikhail F.Zhukov)


1. M.F.Zhukov (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

The results of research of thermal plasma and high-temperature technologies
In review there are generalized results of study of arc discharge physics applied to plasma heaters of gas. This investigations has been carrying out from 1956 to 1997 in the Department of plasma dynamics, Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS. The main directions of researches: heat and electrical-physical processes in discharge channel with gas canal, obtaining of engineering calculation formulas on the basis of criterial relations, near-electrode processes and problems of arc devices life-time, practical elaboration of plasmatorches and their using in some technological processes.

2. Yu.V.Tsvetkov (A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy RAS, Moscow, Russia)

Plasma metallurgy: current state, problems and prospects
Metallurgical processes, based on plasma technology are capable of satisfying a large number of requirements of modern metallurgy: development of highly intensive processes, complex utilization of processed raw materials and ecological compatibility with the environment, preparation of materials with special properties, etc. Author presents some of the main achievements in the area of plasma metallurgy: (i)-the development of theory and mathematical approaches describing the processes of generation of plasma in arc and electrode-free generators enabling engineering calculations of plasma generators with sufficient power, (ii)-design solutions (in hardware) of dc (to 10 MW) and hf thermal plasma torches (to 1 MW) with possible further improvements, (iii)-development of procedures for examining plasma metallurgical processes, mainly the processes of plasma reduction and synthesis based on computer calculations of high-temperature thermodynamics of processes enabling the evaluation of the yield, temperature conditions and energy consumption in the process; mathematical modelling of physical-chemical processes, including the processes of heat and mass exchange which are often limiting, using computers; direct experiments with the calculated parameters; selection optimisation of design and technological features of the process and pilot-plant and industrial applications, (iv)-the development of the scientific concept of plasma metallurgy; unified fundamental considerations regarding interaction of plasma with the substance and optimisation of design and technological solutions to develop highly efficient process and systems for metallurgy of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

3. O.P.Solonenko (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Atmosphere plasma spraying: theory, modelling, diagnostics and some applications
State-of-the art of the thermophysical fundamentals of the atmosphere plasma spraying and some closely related technologies of powder plasma processing are presented. It has been attempted to analyse the theoretical aspects and experimental data characterizing the basic processes which take place in plasma spraying, and information about the modern means of their modelling, diagnostics and computer-aided design. The information presented may be interesting for scientists, engineers and students studying the plasma and other technologies based on the use of high-temperature flows with disperse phase. In this paper we shall focus our attention only on discussion the key problems connected with the entire chain of thermophysical processes determining the chain 'plasma torch--formation of dusted technological flow--sprayed coating' in context of the improvement of conventional technologies of atmosphere plasma spraying (APS).

4. V.V.Pickalov (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Achievements of plasma tomography
This review is devoted to tomographic diagnostics of plasma objects. Experimental setup systems usually used for emission and transmission tomography are discribed. Two- and three - dimensional algorithms of tomography data processing are discussed also. Numerical simulations for different complicated schemes of problem statements are illustrated on numerious examples. The emphasis is on plasma images visualization and characteristic features extraction.

5. V.A.Neronov (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Metallic and ceramic materials: present and future
The basis of scientific-technical progress is power engineering, automatization and materials. Traditional materials can not satisfy complex demands of high temperatures, velocities, loadings and agressive media. It leads to elaboration of new high-temperature materials on the basis of refractory compounds - borides, carbides, nitrides, silicides and kindred them compounds. On the basis of refractory compounds traditional materials are made considerably better; high-effective materials of atomic power engineering, of electro-technical intention are manufactured as well as instrumental, fire-proof, space, constructive and other materials. One of the main directions of present-day material studying is elaboration of principles of designing materials (including coatings) with high-disperse structure. Plasma-chemical synthesis of ultra-fine powders is of primary importance in this matter.

6. E.P.Volchkov, V.P.Lebedev, V.I.Terekhov, N.E.Shishkin (Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Simulation the flow stabilization process by mean of peripheral flow swirling as applied to plasma reactor
There are presented the results devoted to experimental modelling of swirl jets mixing in channels. Particularly, parameters in the near-axial flow area were studied thoroughly. Two characteristic cases of jets mixing were investigated during experiments. They are most often realized in generators of low-temperature plasma (i)-mixing in long cylindrical channels and (ii)-in swirl diaphragm chambers. In the first case the flow is modeled inside a discharge channel of plasmatron and in the second - inside a discharge channel of plasma reactor for various plasma-chemical processes. The main aim of the presented cycle of experimental investigation is the revealing of the total regularities of transfer process in these two kinds of swirl flows as well as the individual peculiarities of structure formation of the flow.

7. G.G.Volokitin, V.E.Borzykh, N.K.Skripnikova (Tomsk State Architectural-building University, Tomsk, Russia)

Extreme technologies in building material production
Last years there has been marked the tendency of using non-traditional technologies for the material production and waste utilization of different origin. It is very important because the possibility of quasidisbalanced processes for the further improvement of existing technologies are appeared to be exhausted. Value of disbalanced processes in the field of syntheses and obtaining new materials as well as utilization vital activity wastes of person is concluded invaried disbalanced conditions of material and possibilities of leading it to one or another condition with technology useful characteristics. For realization of disbalanced processes local concentration of energy is necessary.
The main essential contribution of authors in the development building materials processes and plasma-and-chemistry is: (i)-theoretical generalization of researching results in the field of plasma-and-chemistry and building material processes with the aim of processing building products with the help of low-temperature plasma, (ii)-development of temperature fields calculation strategies on the depth of processing product for the two-phase case in heating its surface by plasma, (iii)-creation of generalized object models and a process of automated plasming of building materials on the basis of different mineral astringent, (iv)-study of hydrodynamics and heat-exchange in the moving film of mineral substance melt, under the work of mass power and in conditions of strong with reference to electro and plasma technologies of obtaining mineral filament.

8. A.Zhainakov, R.Urusov, A.Valeeva (Republic Centre of New Information Technologies Ministry of Social Education and Science of Kyrghyzstan, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic)

Modelling of electric arc plasma

9. O.I.Yas'ko (Academic Scientific Complex 'Lykov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer', Belarus Academy of Sciences, Minsk, Belarus Republic)

On the problem of turbulent arcs modelling
A new hypothesis is verified which assumes the mass being a charge that has not only the known static interaction but also the dynamic one. Moving mass charge produces a special field likewise the electric charge creates magnetic one. Dynamic interaction of moving mass with the co-partner field bends the particles trajectory and creates vortexes which are responsible for flow turbulization. Basic relations are derived for the 'vortex' field. Critical value of Reynolds number and universal velocity profile for cold flow were obtained theoretically on the basis of hypothesis. Four different zones for turbulence behaviour in an electric arc are found to exist. Some basic relationships are derived for turbulent arc. The possibility of pure theoretical simulation of turbulent arcs is shown.

10. H.S.Park, H.N.Lee, K.I.Ji, S.W.Kim, T.H.Kim, H.J.Kim, Y.H.Ji, Y.T.Kim*, M.F.Zhukov, A.N.Timoshevskii, V.P.Lukachov, A.I.Yankovsky, S.P.Vashenko, B.A.Pozdnyakov**, A.I.Fedorchenko*** (*Samsung Heavy Industries Co. Daeduk R&D Center, Daeduk Science Town, Taejeon, Korea; **Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia; ***Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

In general thermal methods like incineration or pyrolisis are applied for disposal and recycling of medical waste, hazardous waste and municipal solid waste etc.
Thermal processes however have indispensable secondary pollution from dioxin, furan and heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Cr) and infectious materials which may reside in ash.
The pilot-industrial units for treatment of medical wastes is designed. They are equiped with appropriate off-gas cleaning system complying with environmental regulation. They consist of main transferred or non- transferred plasma torch, second combustion torch, reaction furnace and off-gas cleaning system. The performance of units is tested on the various model mixtures. The dynamics of burning of the wastes and thermal state of furnace is controlled by taking the gas samples in furnace outlet and by thermocouples and pyrometric measurement of the lining and off-gases temperatures.
The theoretical model based on experimental data is suggested. The computations according to the model are consistent good enough with experimental data and demonstrate that capacity of the unit can be brought to the level 50-100 kg/h in conditions of complete waste (up to CO2 ) combustion.

11. A.Tatubekov, V.I.Nikanorov, Zh.Zh.Zheenbaev, V.B.Bort, T.D.Dganibekov, K.U.Sabaev, K.O.Mukalaev (Institute of Physics, Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic)

Plasmatronic heat- and steam generating installations
The results of researchs ability of application plasma's technology for receiving boiling water and steam for heating was given here. Developed and testing plasmatronic heat generator for producting boiling water wint temperature from 45 to 102C, and plasmatronic steam generator for obtaining steam. The value of using action coefficient was determined. The methods, applying at the experiments was explaned.

12. V.N.Nazarov, V.G.Shchukin, V.V.Marusin (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Plasmachemical deposition of nitrides out of halogenides
Nitrides of metals are widely used in science and technics, it results in search and development of more ideal methods of their production both in form of powder (including ultrafine form) and in form of films (coatings). Traditional methods of their development (gas-discharging plasma condensation in nitrogen, jet spraying, chemical synthesis, etc.) are rather sophisticated, have low productivity or don't provide requested quality of product.
Plasma-chemical treatment is a perspective method of synthesis of nitrides. Here are main regulations for innovate processes: (i)-technological simplicity of process, high resource of equipment's work, ecological harmless, (ii)-usage of relatively cheap reagents, possibility of producing pure products, (iii)-process's productivity, low energetical expenses.
The method of plasma-chemical synthesis of nitrides satisfies most of these characteristics by using simple volatile halogenides, for example: chlorides in nitrogen plasma with addition of hydrogen as a reducer, in condition of electrode-absence flow discharge under atmosphere pressure. Working resource of these plasma-generators is thousands of hours, the absence of electrodes provides higher purity of product. Effectivity of microwave frequency's power transfer from generator to plasma is more than 80 %, trapping of HCl in recovered gases is not difficult.

13. V.E.Ovcharenko, O.P.Solonenko (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk; Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)


14. T. P. Gavrilenko, Yu. A. Nikolaev, V. Yu. Ulianitsky (Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) M. C. Kim (RIST, Pohang, Korea)

Substrate Roughness Influence and Optimum Condition for Detonation Spraying
The role of surface roughness in coating adhesion mechanism was study for detonation spraying. Optimum conditions to provide highest velocity and appropriate temperature were calculated for typical metal, and cermet powders with the help of the developed Integrational Code. Roughness of different size and shape was produced and coatings of WC+25Co cermet and NiCrSiB alloy were sprayed by detonation gun Ob.
A coating bonding strength was measured and the results have shown WC+25Co adhesion to be independent of a substrate surface preparation. Contrary, NiCrSiB coatings were very sensitive to surface conditions. It was found that the main reason of this difference was the difference of spraying temperatures of corresponding powders.
As a result of different character roughness comparison it was established that wide scale and ball shape roughness which is similar to the self-reproduced coating roughness provides the best conditions for the coating bonding and it is recommended as the purpose of surface treatment before thermal spray coating.

15. V.A.Klimenov, Yu.F.Ivanov, O.P.Solonenko, V.V.Trophimov, V.I.Kuz'min, L.B.Botaeva (Russian Scientific Center SB RAS ISPMS, Tomsk; Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

The covering of titanium implants by means gas-thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite powders is an actual scientific, technical and medical problem. Application of hydroxyapatite for these purposes is more preferable. However, the problem of its structural and cyclic strength under conditions of bioenvironment response determines of application areas of such coatings and reliability of them usage.
Structure and phase composition of hydroxyapatite coating under plasma spraying on titanium substrates and their changing, caused as conditions of forming coating on its increasing, so and conditions of spraying an laminar, turbulent plasma streem and treated by electron beam were studied. Exact belief about the crystalline structure and phase composition of coating is obtained by methods electronic microscopy and X-ray analysis.

16. V.S.Klubnikin (Sankt-Peterburg State Technical University, Polyplasma Ltd., Sankt-Peterburg, Russia)

High-velocity and supersonic plasma spraying
There is an analysis of velocity motion of the powder particles by the plasma spraying. It is compared the exist experimental data of different authors for material from Al to W, each with different powder particles size. It is appeared the dependence of the powder particles motion from the stream velocity, from the plasmatron parameters, from the density and size of powder particles. It is affaired the conclusion about maximum motion velocity of powder particles.

17. V.N.Yarygin, L.I.Kuznetsov (Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Low density plasma jet: generation and investigation
The gasdynamic structures of rarefied argon jets are studied in the range of stagnation temperatures up to 5200 K using the electron-beam X-ray method. The experimental studies of the present work were performed in a low-density gasdynamic chamber. The arc heater was used as a gasdynamic source. The changes in the structure of a jet of monatomic gas beyond a sonic nozzle with variation in the rarefaction and the temperature factor have been clarified as a result of the experiments and generalisations performed.

18. V.N.Tischenko (Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

For the first time a new type of a discharge - a laser-microwave discharge (LMD) having high velocity of travel in gas and remote and contactless energy supply is being under consideration. The pulse-periodic laser radiation creates a "trace" of the ionized rarefied gas in which more powerful microwave radiation is absorbed. The beams are coaxial, the motion of the discharges is carried out due to the travel of a focal point of the laser beam along its axis. A pulse-periodic microwave beam is introduced into the "trace" through its lateral surface. In the given paper we present the LMD-generation scheme and its approximate model, determined both the discharge parameters and the requirements to the bunches of laser and microwave radiations. The model was developed on the basis of the experiment [1].
[1] V.N.Tischenko, V.M.Antonov, A.V.Melekhov et al., A microwave discharge in laser plasma// Letters to the J. of Technical Physics. 1996. v. 22, n 24. p.30-34.

19. A.Marotta, L.I.Sharakhovsky and V.I. Krylovich (Gleb Vatagin Institute of Physics, Unicamp, Kampinas, Sao-Paulo, Brazil; Academic Scientific Complex 'Lykov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer', Belarus Academy of Sciences, Minsk, Belarus Republic)

Application of heat diffusion theory for the study of heat transfer and erosion of cold electrodes in unstationary arc spots
A simple theoretical model is proposed for cold electrode erosion in electric arc heaters. Applying heat diffusion equations, it was shown that the erosion problem can be represented by a system of three equations. There have been introduced a new thermal method, for the measurement of arc spot parameters in copper cathodes in magnetically driven arcs in air. The near-electrode voltage drop parameter was replaced by the more general volt-equivalent of the arc spot heat flux. Experimental results are presented for copper cathode erosion in magnetically driven arcs in air, in broad range of operating conditions. Comparison between the model and experimental data enabled to obtain the important characteristic parameters for copper cathode erosion process: the effective enthalpy of electrode material ablation in the arc spot and the microerosion value.
Authors have shown a good agreement between the theoretical model for cold electrode erosion and our's and other authors experimental data in a wide range of operating parameters. They also discuss the limitation of the model based on the assumption of constant velocity of the arc.

20. A.S.Zolkin, D.V.Sheglov, E.V.Grigoryev, V.N.Savenko, A.V.Matveev, V.A.Cherepanov (Novosibirsk State University, Physics Department, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Diamond Crystals from Oxygen-Acetylene Flame on the Molybdenum Substrate at low Temperature
Diamond crystals and polycrystalline films were synthesized from oxyacetylene flame on the molybdenum substrates under atmospheric conditions. The study deals with morphological evolution of diamond films in combustion synthesis at different temperatures of the substrate as a basis for understanding the nucleation and growth mechanisms of the diamond phase. The films and particles were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopes and were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The best results, namely, a polycrystalline diamond films and perfect octahedral crystals, were obtained at R(O2/C2H2)=1.0, gas flow rate F=2.2 l/min, distance between flame-corn and the surface of the substrate d=2 mm. Raman shift: 1332 cm-1, the crystal growth rate: 50 . It has been stated that diamond particles on molybdenum surface can be grown at the surface temperature T = 873 - 1123 K which is lower by about 100 - 150 K than the temperature reported in the known studies of the flame method.

21. V.A.Emel'kin(Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

The results of research of plasmachemical synthesis of BN-coverings are given; these coverings contain diamond-similar phase of cubic boron nitride. The process of precipitation had four phases: (i)-gas-activator excitation in discharge SHF-chamber; (ii)-transport of generized by plasma active substances from excitation area into reactor; (iii)-mixing of activied substances with borazine (B3N3H6) injected lower in flow; (iv)-precipitation of thin films on heated surface out of glow discharge area.
It is shown with the use of methods of infra-red spectroscopy and electronic diffraction that obtained coverings contain the phase of cubic boron nitride. It is found that borum nitride films obtained by this method under 'soft' conditions have high value of microstrength (15 - 56 GPa).

22. V.K.Baev (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

An approximate model of reactive gas exchange and its application to analysis of coal particle gasification and combustion
The model is based on assumption that a solid fuel reacts in gas phase. Decrease in mass of solid particle in gas medium is determined by the rate of gasification (evaporation, sublimation). Reasoning on conseption that all gases that are above the surface take part in the exchange processes, the equations characterizing the parcial pressure of solid fuel vapours and coefficient of the reactive interchange of gases are obtained. A correlation of coefficient of the reactive interchange of gases and the rate of mass losses computed with known experimental data characterizing the combustion and gasification of carbon spherical particles (coke, anthracite) demonstrates a good consent.
An extra analysis regarding the influence of relative velocity of gases motion and the energy generation has allowed to determine the temperature limits of transition from kinetic to diffusion regime and from diffusion regime to sublimation one for combustion of coal particles as well as an influence of mass forces (as a result of gravitation, curvilinearness of particle trajectory and acceleration) upon specific rate of the combustion.

23. A.D.Rychkov, M.F.Zhukov (Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Mathematical modelling of the ignition process for pulverized-coal and air mixture by low-temperature plasma jet
The numerical modeling of interaction of the axisymmetric low temperature plasma jet with two-phase flow in the burner device of a boiler is carried out. Motion of two-phase medium is considered within the framework of stochastic Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, when the model of continual medium is used for the carrier gas, and the disperse phase is described by the trajectory model of trial particles.
On the basis of numerical simulation the conditions of particles ignition, the distribution of particles concentration, and the structure of burning zone in relation to the heat power of plasma jet have been investigated.

24. M.F.Zhukov, E.I.Karpenko, V.E.Messerle, S.L.Buyantuev, V.S.Peregudov (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk; Gusinoozyerskaya GRES, Gusinoozyersk; Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Here the actuality of use of plasma-energy technologies in power engineering is described; their ecological, economical and energy effectiveness is shown; scientific and technical base of plasma-energy technologies of fuel-use has been worked out and here there are calculation results of theoretical, experimental and stand research of plasma ignition, gasification, thermochemical preparation for combustion and complex coal treatmen. The results of practical realization of plasma technologies of coal-dust boilers mazutless ignition, lighting of flames and stabilization of liquid slag output in furnaces with liquid slag moving off are described.

25. M.F.Zhukov, A.N.Timoshevskii, B.A.Pozdnyakov, V.S.Ponkratov (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

There are the results of research of electric and heat characteristics of plasma torch working on CF4. Arc work regime is chosen with fixation of its average length by step in output electrode. The experimental data have revealed in discharge characteristics some peculiarities which were not observed for most of the other gases: complete absence of pressure influence in discharge chamber of plasma torch upon electric field strength; its independence on discharge channel diameter of more than 10 mm, high dependence of heat losses on channel length in comparison with another determining parameters. The experimental data were generalized in calculating formulas.

26. U.B.Ashimov, E.A.Abdrakhmanov, G.D.Manapova, T.S.Maldybaeva (Kazakh National Technical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan)

Influence of three-phase electric arcs, burning on oxide melts, on quality of the electric power
The three-phase electric arc, generated by special electric arc installations is used wider in a number of technological processes of metallurgical, chemical and building industries, superseding traditional technologies at the expense of increase of productivity, capacity, reduction of processes stages and other. Characteristics three-phase electric arc units is generation by electric arcs higher harmonic components of currents and voltage in supply circuit negatively influences that quality of the electric power. The higher harmonics, generated by electric arcs, render essential influence to such parameter of quality of electric power, as non-sine wave of the form of a curve of voltage in circuits of an alternating current, on technological parameters of electroreceivers, connected to them, and also for work of electric arc units. So, for example, they result in large difficulties at automatic control, as the measuring bodies of electronic regulators react to the acting significance's of currents and voltage, and last are the most hardly deformed by higher harmonics.
In connection with stated, there is the problem of an experimental research of spectral structure higher harmonics of currents and voltage, generated by three-phase electric arcs, burning on oxide melts, revealing of laws of changes of structure and levels of higher harmonics from electrical and technological parameters and work conditions of mining-thermal furnaces. The experimental researches of higher harmonic components of currents and voltage, generated by three-phase electric arcs, burning on oxide melts, were conducted on integrated laboratory three-phase four-electrode furnace with a rectangular bath and linear electrode block (with a splitted phase A on outer electrodes) by capacity 150 kVA and on the industrial furnace RKZ-4 by capacity 4 MVA.

27. A.Gutsol, J.A.Bakken (Institute for Chemistry and Technology Rare Elements and Raw Materials, Kola Scientific Center RAS, Russia; Norvegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norwey)

New Vortex Method of Plasma Insulation
In the usual vortex method of plasma stabilization and insulation the central reverse flow transfers the energy from the center of discharge upstream, and a significant part of this energy is absorbed by the plasmotron walls and becomes lost. If the outlet of the plasma jet is moved along the axis to the swirl generator side then the plasma gas will enter the discharge zone from all sides except the outlet side and no recirculation zone is formed. Experiments were made with a microwave plasma generator with a MW power input about 5 kW. The replacing of vortex inlet reduced the energy loss to the plasmotron walls from about 40 % till about 5 %. Numerical modeling of the reverse vortex flow was made using the fluid flow and heat transfer simulation program "FLUENT". If the reverse vortex flow configuration is used, almost all parts of the plasma gas pass through the discharge zone. So this system is very promising for different plasma chemical and other plasma technology applications.

28. I.M.Ulanov, S.N.Soldatov (Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Experimental investigation of electric, energetic and optic characteristics of the induction transformer-type discharge
The electric field strength of elecrodeless induction transformer-type plasma torch as a function of the discharge current was investigated in this paper for different gases (argon, air, CO2) under the pressure in the chamber from 10 up to 105 Pa. The current is in the range 30-500 A. The maximal power of the discharge is 180 kW. The temperature of heavy particle (atoms and ions) at the discharge axis was measure for low pressure conditions. A stationary discharge in argon and air was obtained for the current frequency of 10 kHz under atmospheric pressure. The temperature level at the discharge axis (under low pressure 13-133 Pa) is different for different gases. It is from 200 ° C up to 2000 ° C. The temperature is easily varied with adjusting the discharge current. Optical characteristics in visible and ultraviolet spectra were measured for a low-pressure discharge.
Authors came to conclusion that transformer-type discharge can be used in the development of plasmatrons, plasmachemical reactors, plasma furnaces and new light sources.

29. E.B.Kulumbaev, V.M.Lelevkin (Kyrgyz-Russian State University, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic)

Mathematical modelling of transformator discharge
The theoretical investigation of the low-frequency discharge of a transformator type without gas flow was carried out. The application of the kinless approach at the electrodynamic description of the discharge and a possibility of a steady approach during calculation of the argon plasma characteristics in the interval of frequencies of 1-10 kHz and pressures of 10-100 kPa was shown. An existence of two regimes of the discharge burning was established: (i) of stable one with a high temperature and (ii) unstable one with a low temperature. An influence of frequency, voltage on a plasma coil, kind and pressure of plasma-forming gas on the discharge characteristics was investigated. The results of modelling are agreed with experiment.

30. A.P.Alkhimov, S.V.Klinkov, V.F.Kosarev, N.I.Nesterovich (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Shock interaction of microparticles with a surface and coating formation
The features of shock interaction of plastic particle with an obstacle with impact velocity of 300-1200 m/s and surface temperature up to 1200 K, and the coating formation under these conditions have been investigated. Some examples of the practical usage of results obtained are presented.

31. O.P.Solonenko (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Equilibrium solidification of melt microdroplets under their collision with substrate. Theory and its application in thermal spray technology
It has been done the attempt of the developing the engineering-physical fundamentals allowing to predict the dynamics of the molten particle solidification at its deformation on the substrate in the frame of the equilibrium approach. In this case, the possible substrate melting at its contact with particle is taken into consideration. In particular, the suggested one-dimensional model allows to estimate extremely important technological parameters, i.e. the thickness and diameter of splat on the surface. With the use of the theoretical fundamentals developed there is represented the set of useful, in our opinion, dependencies which are of interest for thermal spray technologies.

32. O.P.Solonenko, A.V.Smirnov (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Equilibrium solidification of melt microdroplets under their collision with substrate. Model exeriment and criterion generalization of splats morphology
For further development of the theoretical models describing the melt droplet - substarte interaction, there were carried out comprehensive model experimental investigations to facilitate a more detailed comparison of the thickness and diameter of splats under the conditions of complete control of the main regime parameters of the process. The results show convincingly that for the investigated droplets the above-mentioned theoretical solutions generalises quite satisfactorily the experimental data without introducing any empirical constant. In the frame of creation of the generalised map of the plasma sprayed splats formation, it was found the existence of the transition region of the main regime parameters where the mechanism of droplets spreading and solidification changes drastically.

33. V.G.Shchukin, V.V.Marusin (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

The high-frequency quenching processes simulation
The thermophysical HFIQ model has been developed, which describes satisfactorily the heating and quenching dynamics of a steel surface layers under the effect of short-time impulses of HF electromagnetical field at specific powers (6-60)× 104 kW/m2. The experimental checking on the frequency f=440 kHz has shown the adequacy of developed model to the real HFIQ process.

34. A.L.Mosse, V.A.Kalitko (Academic Scientific Complex 'Lykov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer', Belarus Academy of Sciences, Minsk, Belarus Republic)

Plasma shaft furnace for thermal processing of solid and radioactive wastes operation regime calculation
A new plasma shaft furnace for the thermal plasma processing and vitrification of solid toxic and radioactive wastes is developed and to be under investigation. The complex theoretical studies on its operation regime are carried out. By numerical analysis and calculations it has shown that such of waste plasma processing as in the shaft furnace proposed is characterized by the well acceptable energy consumption, significantly less length of operating zone and low volume of off-gases if compared with fuel furnaces, and good possibility for the radioactive aerozols absorption by the bulk of waste charge in the furnace shaft if compared with batch or rotary ones.

35. A.V.Ivanov, V.T.Gotovchikov, Yu.N.Tumanov (Russian Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow, Russia)

Plasma technologies as wasteless technological processes of producing the oxides and metals
The main advantages of plasma technology are defined by the possibility of (i)-creating the wasteless and ecologically clean processes, and (ii)-regulating the material quality and its physico-chemical properties. There have been worked out the following wasteless plasma processes of the producing the disperse materials: (i)-using the thermal plasma in nuclear fuel cycle for decomposition of the desintegrated solution (the process is used for producing the oxides and oxide composition of such metals as Mg, Zr, Hf, Zn, Al, Cr, Y-Ba-Cu, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu, etc.); 2) using the thermal plasma in fuel nuclear cycle for fluorides conversion (the technology is developed which permit to exclude the keeping a big quantity of improverished with isotope U-235 waste hexafluoride uranium at the expense of its transmission into a safe producing the containers intended for radioactive waste keeping; the process of plasmo-chemical conversion of the silicon tetrafluoride contained in off-gas fluorine-hydrogene manufactury is work out); 3) it was developed the process of treating the compound waste with the use of rf plasma installation with 'cold crucible' combined with dc plasma torch.

36. V.S.Cherednichenko, L.K.Pavlenko, A.V.Zagorskii (Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Physical phenomena in a hollow cathode and powder's interaction with the vacuum arc
Vacuum hollow cathode arc dischargers allow to achieve extremely high heat flux on a heated surfaces (up to 107 W/m2) at low working voltages (30 -- 100 V). Such kind of arc dischargers are favor to be used in an appropriate industry because of its high efficiency being achieved (up to 80 - 90 %) in a range of pressure from 1 to 103 Pa preferable in technology.

37. A.S.An'shakov, A.M.Kazanov, V.S.Cherednichenko (Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Solid domestic and industrial waste treatment using the thermal plasma
The current waste utilization methods used for city and industry waste treatment do not meet the demands of safe ecology legislation. However, solid domestic waste (SDW) and many kinds of industry waste contains up to 80 % of hydrocarbon renewal raw materials which can be an additional energy source for municipal heating, thus compensating partially the treatment cost. The review of the current SDW and toxic waste treatment shows the tendency to the use of higher temperatures in the reaction zone and the tendency to application of multistep processes (e.g., the generation of synthesis-gas with the following burning for heating or its utilization as a chemical component). Among these methods is an ecologically friendly electric plasma technology of waste treatment (with Tpl   = 5000 º C). This method allows a deep decomposition of all compositions into simple substances. It is able to transfer all inorganic components into liquid slag and to obtain the synthesis-gas with heat capacity 10 - 13 MJ/m3.
The plasma treatment technology meet the requirements of no-loss heating of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons to obtain a high-calorie mixture of H2 and CO (synthesis gas). The pyrolysis of hydrocarbon component of waste takes place very quickly and rather completely for a temperature which cab be achieved only with electric arc gas heaters (plasmatrons). Depending on the purpose and the capability of the treatment plant, the power of plasmatrons varies from 10 kW up to 1 - 3 MW. The current design of a linear plasma generator provides the continuous operation during hundreds of hours.

38. V.S.Ponkratov, B.A.Pozdnyakov, A.N.Timoshevskii (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

There are experimental data of electrodes erosion of plasma torch for different technological processes in such media as air, oxygen, acid gas (H2S+CO2), CF4. Electrodes materials are different - copper, zirconium bronze, pseudo-alloy tungsten-copper, tantalum, stainless steel.
A great attention is done on possibility of electrodes, cathode and anode, work in self-restoration regimes. For example, in the technology of plasma ignition and combustion stabilization of coal-dust fuel, injecting coal dust in special form electrode, it is possible to obtain erosionless work regime of functioning the plasma torch. Also there is a review of known data characterizing the self-restoring cathodes as well as experimental results of this regime in CF4 medium.

39. O.Ya.Novikov, V.F.Put'ko (Samara State Technical University, Samara, Russia)

Integrated method of research of processes, proceeding in generators of thermal plasma
Jubilee character of the 3rd International Workshop allows to prepare a material of article presented as the review of results of works of Samara group, representing one of branches of scientific school of the academician of Russian Academy of Science M.F.Zhukov, in the basic monographies published in a series, leaving under his edition.

40. I.A.Tikhomirov, V.A.Vlasov, B.P.Romanov, A.G.Karengin (The Tomsk Politechnical University, Tomsk, Russia)

It is known, that the plasma of the high frequency (HF) discharges at present is the subject not only of scientific researches, but also of practical use. Easiness of excitation of the HF discharges, their large capacity and stability, the comparative simplicity in management and regulation, wide range on speeds for reagents and time of their stay in a zone of the discharge create it certain advantages in comparison with the other types of electrical discharges.
The HF discharges are burn in gas and steam-to-gas environments in a wide range of pressures. The power of the HF generators, giving the energy to discharge, can reach 1000 kW and more The HF discharges, according to the accepted classification, are called the HF induction (HFI), the HF capacitor (HFC) and the HF arc (HFA) discharges.
In conditions of the HF plasma the efficiency of heating of granular fine-dispersion materials is much higher. It is also connected with the specifity of the HF plasma, that makes it practically irreplaceable in a whole number of technological processes, especially there, where the special cleanliness of received production and wide manoeuvre on technological conditions and regimes are required.
The authors present the review of original cycle of investigations devoted to the different kind of the high frequency discharges and their technological application.

41. G.V.Galevsky, V.A.Neronov (Sibirian Mining and Metallurgical Academy, Novokuznetsk; Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Plasmachemical synthesis of borides ultra-dispersed powders, their properties and application
Special features of equipment's getting up and technological regularities of plasma-chemical reductional synthesis of ultra-dispersed powders of borides of titanium, zirconium, vanadium and chromium are investigated. The chemical and phase composition of compounds obtained, their crystallographical structure, thermo-oxidizing and corrosion resistance, particle's size distribution, gas-saturation of particle's surface are studied. The high efficiency of powder's application in compositional nickelizing processes is testified.

42. G.N.Minnekhanov, V.P.Saburov, M.F.Zhukov, A.N.Cherepanov (Omsk Technical University, Omsk; Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Influence of ultra-fine powders upon non-metallic includings and excess phases in carbon steels
This work presents the results of experimental research of effect which fine powders of refractory compounds have on dispersity of non-metallic includings in steels. Here it is shown that using of fine powders as modificating admixtures at a rate of <0.05 % in mass decreases number of these includings 1.5 times when their number per area unit increases 1.3 times. In this process we can observe rising of strength and a limit of fluidity.

43. A.N.Cherepanov, V.A.Poluboyarov, A.I.Drobyazh, M.F.Zhukov, V.P.Saburov, A.P.Kalinina, E.P.Ushakova (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk; Omsk Technical University, Omsk; Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant, Inc.; Institute of Solid State Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Use of ultrafine powders of refractory ceramic materials for improving the quality of cast-iron casting (ingot moulds)
To study the influence of ultra-fine powders (UFP) of refractory ceramic materials and modification technique on the casting structure and mechanical features of grey cast iron, casting of grey cast iron in sandy-clayey forms was performed. Owing to defects of particle structure that result from mechanical treatment in the centrifugal planet mill, UFP particles affect not only growth of crystals of metal, but also morphology of graphite inclusions. It has been found out that mechanical characteristics of castings improve: limit of tensile strength increases by 20-30 %, specific elongation increases by 20-40 % as compared to non-modified castings.

44. A.P.Kalinina, A.N.Cherepanov (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Study of nucleation on ultradispersed powder particles produced by the method of plasmochemical synthesis
Nowadays ultradispersed powders of refractory compounds with particle size of 0.01-0.1 mkm produced by plasmochemical synthesis draw close attention of researchers. The reason is their ability, upon certain treatment, to become effective crystallization centers in metal melts. Small size of these particles results in specific conditions of solid phase formation on their surface. The present paper deals with kinetics of formation of spherical embryo on a spherical particle. The effect of size and shape of particles on the value of wetting angle, Gibbs free energy and rate of heterogeneous nucleation has been studied. It has been shown that because of small size of particles and embryos a shift of the metastability region limit to the area of higher temperatures takes place. The value of the shift is 20-30 % of the metastability region. The effect is mostly due to the action of linear tension forces. Action of these forces diminishes wetting angle, its cosine being increased by the value directly proportional to the radius of curvature of the embryo.

45. Xi Chen, Lan Yu (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)

Modeling of a d.c. arc plasma generator with a hydrogen-argon mixture as the working gas
Modeling results are presented for a d.c. arc plasma generator with a 2% hydrogen - 98 % argon mixture as the working gas. SIMPLEC algorithum has been employed in the computation and the combined diffusion coefficients have been used to treat the diffusion of hydrogen species in the gas mixture. Both laminar and turbulent regimes are included. It is shown that the demixing effect is guite significant within the arc region, but mainly is not caused by the pure thermal diffusion.

46. I.M.Zasypkin, G.V.Nozdrenko (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk; Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Here plasmachemical methods of acetilene and synthesis-gas production from brown and bituminous coal are considered.
Manufactury of acetilene from coal in hydrogenous plasma stream was worked out on installations with coal productivities from 10 kg/hour (laboratory) to 1 t/hour (industry). Obtained results compares well with the best results of firms Huls (Germany), AVCO (USA) and others. The process is one-stage and practically does not polute atmosphere.
Also the plasmathermal method of synthesis-gas manufacturing from the coal is considered. This process is two-stages: gasification of steam-coal mixture in thermal reactor with dividing wall and then gasification in water-steam plasma stream. The process results to obtain synthesis gas free from combustion products. It may be used in chemical industry, power engineering, metallurgy.

47. O.P.Solonenko, A.L.Sorokin (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

Calculations of homogeneous plasma flow are of fundamental interest for modelling various technological processes. Well established in modelling the quasi-isothermical flows two-parameter k-e model is usually applied to computing these flows. The comparison the results obtained with available experimental data revealed tendency to underestimate the jet spread angle that lead to overshooting the axial values of flow parameters. The generalisation of mathematical model on the strong non-isothermical case was performed through Fauvre averaging using opportunity to avoid additional correlations caused by the temperature fluctuations. The simple correction of model constant , based on ratio of scale of the temperature field and the large eddies scale . The calculations performed using this correction show the improvement in agreement with the available experimental data.

48. G.A.Desyatkov, V.Ts.Gurovich, E.B.Kulumbaev (Kyrgyz-Russian State University, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic)

Numerical investigation of characteristics of a steady curved arc in external fields
An electric arc interaction with external fields was numerically and analytically analysed. On the basis of the set of the Navie-Stockes equations the two-dimensional model and special technique for calculation of characteristics of a steady curved horizontal electric arc in its vertical cross section was developed. The detailed temperature and gas flow fields for an arc curved under an action of gas cross flow and mass forces were determined. The results of numerical simulation are qualitatively agreed with experimental data. They show that the gas-dynamic pictures are quite different in the cases of mass and non-mass forces. The simple estimation for the plasma velocity in the region of the arc maximum temperature is offered.

49. Yu.V.Bruevich, I.P.Nazarenko, I.G.Panevin (Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia)

The modified balance method of near-cathode processes calculation characteristics
The modified balance method of calculation such near-cathode processes characteristics as the cathode potential drop and heat flux which transfers from plasma to cathode surface is discussed. This method which keeps the small expenditure on calculation procedure as in usual balance method takes into account the peculiarities revealed with help of exact calculation method which is founded on the different equations system solution. It is carried out the comparison of the cathode potential drop and the heat flux to the cathode surface calculated by exact and modified balance methods for arc discharge burning in argon (P=105 Pa) on the tungsten cathode. It is shown that the calculation results coincide reasonably and modified balance method may be used for the calculation of the above-mentioned characteristics of the near-cathode processes.

50. H.Ts.Zayatuev (Gusinoozyerskaya GRES, Gusinoozyersk, Russia)

Emission current density and electronic work function of a metal to plasma
One of today's most important and challenging problems of physics of near-electrode process in gas discharges is what is known as the 'abnormal' emission phenomenon which is experimentally observed on thermal emission arc discharge cathodes under inert gas conditions. However, in spite of a rich variety of papers, which are concerned with the explanation of this phenomenon, it might be pointed out that there are no yet theoretical investigations the results of which are in close agreement with the experimental data.
Thus the purpose of this paper is a design of a theoretical model to provide an explanation for linearly dependence of the effective electronic work function with cathode temperature and thereby the problem of 'abnormal' emission as a whole.

51. L.Lin, C.K.Wu (Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)

Some Studies on Thermal Factors Pertaining to Electrode Erosion in Plasma Torches
In general thermal methods like incineration or pyrolysis are applied for disposal and recycling of hospital waste, hazardous waste, and, municipal solid waste etc. Thermal Processes however have indispensable secondary pollution from dicoxin, furan, and heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Cr) and infectious materials which may reside in ash. SAMSUNG develops plasma heated furnace with appropriate off-gas cleaning system complying with environmental regulations. They consist of main transferred or non-transferred plasma torch, 2nd combustion torch, reaction furnace, and off-gas cleaning system. The present paper describes the 500kW plasma furnace installed for treating the hospital waste, and discusses the results of the melting tests and recycling of non-contaminated simulated products conducted by the composition of real hospital waste.

52. M.F.Zhukov, S.P.Vaschenko (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

In the work anode area of high pressure electric arc was considered. Experimental data are analysed and the physical model of arc action is offered. On the base of this model a classification of phenomena in near-anode area is made.
Methods of operating of near-anode area parameters are considered, the area of existing the independent and dependent discharge regimes, questions of dividing of anode arc spot, single and multiple contraction, mechanismes of electrodes erosion and methods of controlling these processes in cases of immovable and movable arc.

53. M.Hrabovský, J.Jeni?ta, M.Konrád, V.Kopecký, V.Sember (Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Praha, CR)

Analysis of Mass and Energy Balances in the Column of Electric Arc Stabilized by Water Vortex
Axial and radial transfer of energy and mass in the arc column were analysed on the basis of combination of experimental investigation with theoretical modelling. The fraction of total arc power transferred in radial direction by heat conduction, convection and radiation was evaluated from the measured data using theoretical model of arc. The radial transport of energy by radiation was identified as a decisive process controlling arc and plasma properties. The balance of radial energy transport was studied. The ratio of energy spent for evaporation of water to the energy absorbed in the evaporated mass is very low in water stabilized arc. This is the principal cause of extremely high plasma temperatures and velocities found in the measurements.
The model solves the differential equations of balances of mass, impulse and energy for axisymmetric arc column surrounded by evaporating wall. Total mass flow rate from the vortex wall was determined from the measured power balances and from measured temperature profiles at the torch exit. This mass flow rate was then used as input for model calculations. The effect of heating of arc plasma in the exit nozzle is taken into account in the analysis.

54. F.A.Salyanov (Kazan Scientific Center RAS, Kazan, Russia)

Theoretical studies of thermal flow in a tube with modulated BY electric current
There are presented the results of analytical solution of equation system of the thermal plasma flow in a tube with modulated electric current. In the accepted nonstationary mathematical model, the variability of plasma flow velocity and arc column radius is considered. As it is observed from the solutions of equations and the subsequent analysis, the nonstationary local characteristics of the thermal plasma flow and arc column in the tube look like the damping Riemann plane waves. The results generalize earlier theoretical studies of the author.

55. A.P.Mamaev, P.I.Butyagin (Republican Engineer - Technical Center SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia)

Increasing Reliability of Power Equipment Units By Means of Hardening Zirconium Oxide Coatings
The present work reports some investigation results on coatings aimed at protecting from fretting corrosion machine parts of power equipment made of zirconium, aluminium and their alloys, which is, undoubtedly, urgent in increasing their safety, reliability and service life.
Coatings are produced with water solution in the microplasma regime the essence of which is as follows. A treated machine part and a metal counter electrode are immersed into a tank with a salt solution to which an electric current is applied. As the current passes through the electrode-solution surface, there occur processes at the interface of the treated part which are related to releasing gases, transfer of ions of metal, electrolyte anions and water.
At higher voltages, there appear microarc discharges. Anode currents of a great density passing through the electrode surface are accompanied by formation of a barrier layer on the electrode surface consisting of electric and oxide layers. In case the electric of the barrier layer is less than the intensity at interface of electrode-solution, a breakdown and microarc process occur.
Current voltages and densities are selected so that one square decimeter should allow up to 106 plasma microdischarges varying in size from 0.1 to 10 m. High temperatures up to 14000 oC occur at the axis of each microplasma discharge causing gas cavity formation, electrolyte ionization, decomposition of salts into oxides and oxidizing of the substrate. As a result, a grain is formed consisting of the above oxides. The structure of a given grain is usually of a cylinder shape with a hole in the center caused by microplasma discharge.
Holes in the center of the grain ensure a porosity up to 15 %. Anticorrosion properties of the material do not worsen since, due to such a number of pores, the material is in the passive state. The characteristic feature of the process is that it independently controls the uniformity and thickness of the coating.
Our investigations showed the coating based on zirconium oxides of incomplete stoichiometric composition with a monoclinic crystalline lattice to be the most resistant to fretting corrosion. The coating technology is environment-friendly.

56. B.M.Rahimyanov, G.A.Iskakova (Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia)

The development of mathematical model of the deformation process by ultrasonic avtion in schemes of combined treatment
The modelling of deformational process had given a chance to get numerical relations of deformation's area and modes of high-velocity loading, and by united criteria connect kinetic and deformational parameters of ultrasound action to provide required conditions of forming surface layer with certain microgeometrical and hardening characteristics.

57. T.N.Belyanina, A.V.Druzhinin, M.V.Radchenko (Altai State Technical University, Barnaul, Russia)

The forecasting of protective coatings complex properties produced by electron-beam cladding in vacuum
The object of investigation was to settle up the complex relations between the technological parameters of electron beam cladding process in vacuum and phisical-mechanical properties of the coatings, based on powder Ni-Cr-B-Si system. The regressions was built and formed as a program complex which is intended to predict the properties of coatings.

58. B.I.Mikhailov (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

The possibility of realization of coals gasification in water-steam plasma is considered theoretically and experimentally. Advantages and disadvantages are shown. Existing schemes of plasmachemical reactors are analized. The future of water-steam plasma is visible in combining the processes where a conventional and non-conventional methods are used.